What is CBD?
You’ve likely seen products made with CBD recently appearing on the shelves of your local retailers. Products containing CBD are becoming more available and boast a wide variety of beneficial effects. The business of CBD is booming and, with increasing amounts of scientific research and relaxed regulations, likely to continue for the foreseeable future. We are just on the edge of discovering all of the therapeutic benefits that cannabis compounds, like CBD, can offer us. But what is it exactly and why do we use it? There are many questions that surround CBD and, sometimes, it's difficult to find the answers.
There is some apprehension about CBD products because the CBD compound is extracted from the family of Cannabis plants. The United States has had a long and complicated history with Cannabis. The long-time stigma surrounding the plant raises concerns about its legality and its intoxicating effects. CBD can be harvested from Hemp and its cousin, Marijuana, making it important to be informed about the product you're consuming. All forms of Cannabis were illegal in the United States until recently, so a comprehensive understanding of the laws concerning Cannabis is vital.
Before adding CBD to your wellness regimen, it’s important to educate yourself about what it actually is, the potential benefits, legality, and the source and quality of the product. There is a lot of excitement and a plethora of information surrounding CBD. We thought it might be helpful to offer a clear and detailed explanation that demystifies CBD and helps you understand what it is and how it works.
The CBD we’ve blended with the goat milk products you know and love is harvested from hemp grown at Mission Farms CBD. Hemp, along with its cousin, the marijuana plant, is a member of the Cannabis family. Cannabis has been found to be rich in many different beneficial compounds, but the levels of these compounds differ between plants. The Hemp plant is low in THC, or Tetrahydrocannabinol, and rich in CBD, also known as Cannabidiol. It's relative , marijuana, contains lower levels of CBD and is rich in THC, resulting in its intoxicating effects. Both plants contain other non-psychoactive, therapeutic components such as CBN, CBG, and terpenes.
Hemp, or Cannabis sativa, was federally legalized in all 50 US States when the 2018 Farm Bill was passed in the United States Congress. The Hemp Farming Act of 2018 was proposed in early 2018 and its provisions were adopted into the US Farm Bill before it passed on December 20, 2018. The bill classifies “Hemp” as Cannabis containing less than 0.3% THC. For CBD products to be legally sold in the United States, the CBD oil used must be harvested from Hemp and contain less than 0.3% THC.
The 2018 Farm Bill also puts measures in place to protect hemp farmers. The bill now allows them to have access to public water rights and federally subsidized crop insurance among other programs vital to the survival of the American farmer. Farmers and other entrepreneurs involved in the hemp industry will now be able to utilize our national banking system, which was previously prohibited by the federal government.
The 2018 US Farm Bill addressed only the legalities concerning the cultivation of Hemp. Marijuana still remains a Schedule 1 drug in the United States, classifying it as non-medicinal. The federal government still considers growing, selling or using Marijuana to be a crime. Despite this, forty-two US states have adopted medical and/or recreational Cannabis laws.
CBD from Mission Farms CBD is harvested from CBD-rich hemp grown legally in Oregon. Their hemp has been cultivated to contain high amounts of CBD, specifically for use in therapeutic blends from soap to sublingual oil. This is important because all Hemp oils are not created equally! The oil harvested from these hemp plants has been analyzed by a third-party lab, guaranteeing a high-quality product that contains a high percentage of CBD and a low percentage of THC. THC, or Tetrahydrocannabinol, is the intoxicating chemical responsible for that "high" feeling that comes from marijuana. Mission Farms CBD grows Hemp plants naturally low in THC and heavy in CBD. CBD works differently than THC and produces no psychotropic effects. Simply put, CBD will not get you “high”!
Mission Farms CBD skillfully creates CBD-rich products, including oils, creams, soaps, milk baths, and more. Every product is all-natural, toxin-free, non-psychoactive, and non-addictive. The CBD oil they use is derived from organically grown, responsibly harvested whole hemp extract, which includes a full spectrum of phytocannabinoids such as CBD and other beneficial hemp components.
We’ve developed a close relationship with Mission Farms CBD and we feel confident blending our products with theirs. Just as we know where our goat milk comes from, we’ve been to the Mission Farms hemp fields. We have seen, first hand, the detailed and specific process from seed to oil. We trust that you’ll find the same level of quality in their CBD products that you’ve become accustomed to with our products.
Cannabidiol, more commonly known as CBD, is one of over 113 compounds found in the cannabis plant. It has recently become well-known for relieving aches and pains when applied topically or ingested in a sublingual tincture. Even though it has gained in popularity over the last few years, cannabinoids like CBD were actually discovered in 1940. Since then, scientists have discovered the role of the body’s endocannabinoid system and have slowly uncovered its profound importance.
The Endocannabinoid System
“The discovery of the endocannabinoid system is the single most important scientific medical discovery since the recognition of sterile surgical technique. As our knowledge expands, we are coming to realize that the ECS is a master control system of virtually all physiology.”
- Dr. David B. Allen
We all have an endocannabinoid system that works within our central nervous system. Its main function is to help regulate the other body systems for maximum health. The goal of the endocannabinoid system is to help your body maintain a stable, healthy balance despite outside influences and stressors.
For example, the endocannabinoid system controls inflammatory responses in your body. Once the threat of illness has passed, it tells your immune system to calm down, reducing fever and swelling. It signals your muscles to relax after experiencing a fight or flight response and works to lower blood pressure. Many people today struggle with digestive dysfunction or have trouble sleeping. The endocannabinoid system works to bring these important systems back into balance. Basically, your endocannabinoid system is the master controller of all physiological functions. It communicates with other systems in your body and cannabinoids are the messengers within this complex network.
Endocannabinoids are naturally produced within our bodies and bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 and CB2 receptors are among the most plentiful receptors in the human body. Anandamide is one type of endocannabinoid naturally produced by the body. It is produced when we experience intense aerobic activity and attaches itself to our cannabinoid receptors. It is now thought that anandamide is responsible for “Runner’s High”, a feeling of euphoria coupled with reduced anxiety and a lessened ability to feel pain.
CBD is considered a phytocannabinoid because it is a plant-based cannabinoid that works within our body’s endocannabinoid system. Cannabis isn’t alone in its phytocannabinoid producing abilities. Echinacea and Cacao, two plants long-known for their strong effects on the body, are among several other cannabinoid-producing plants. Cannabinoids, like CBD, function as neurotransmitters within your endocannabinoid system. Neurotransmitters send signals to body systems that are over or underperforming and need to make adjustments in order to maintain the natural balance of the body or homeostasis. CBD is a very effective neurotransmitter.
For example, CBD can help tell your digestive system to reduce high levels of inflammation or it can signal naturally occurring analgesics to be released, easing pain associated with an injury. CBD can stimulate the CB1 receptors in your brain resulting in mood stabilization and feelings of well being. CBD can also bond to CB2 receptors to increase the availability of anandamide, signaling its release without aerobic activity. Since the cannabinoid receptors in your endocannabinoid system are the most plentiful receptors in your entire body, it’s no wonder that CBD is a helpful tool for communicating and meeting the needs of your various body systems.
CBD also functions as a neurotransmitter within other systems, connecting with receptors beyond your endocannabinoid system. For example, it directly stimulates the serotonin receptors in the brain that impact anxiety, mood, pain, and sleep. CBD also interacts directly with receptors in your body that mediate inflammation and body temperature.
Terpenes and Essential Oils
Terpenes are aromatic organic compounds found in a variety of plants, including cannabis. They are responsible for the distinct scents of individual plants and recent research has discovered that they have many medicinal benefits. If you’ve added essential oils to your wellness routine, then you’re already familiar with terpenes. Essential oils, such as Lavender or Eucalyptus, are rich in terpenes such as limonene, pinene, and linalool. There are naturally occurring terpenes within cannabis, such as amyrin, squalene, phytol, and humulene, that have been shown to interact with cannabinoid receptors and physiologic systems including immune, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems.
Terpenes bind with cannabinoids to produce what is known as the “entourage effect”. The entourage effect describes the way cannabinoids and terpenes work together to enhance the overall effects of one another within the endocannabinoid system. For example, the terpene, myrcene, can reduce resistance in the blood-brain barrier, making it easier for compounds like CBD to reach cannabinoid receptors in the brain. Blending essential oils with CBD products can boost the effectiveness of these therapeutic compounds and enhance their ability to reach the receptors of the endocannabinoid system.
Conditions Treatable with CBD
It is becoming increasingly clear that cannabinoid receptors within the endocannabinoid system play a crucial role in the regulation of our immune systems. Phytocannabinoids have been shown to encourage healthy cell turnover, making them a viable option in treating inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Experiments with Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Colitis, and Hepatitis have all shown promising results. Cannabinoids, including CBD, suppress inflammatory response and subsequently help to relieve disease symptoms.
Historical records from ancient China and Greece suggest that preparations of Cannabis indica were commonly prescribed to relieve multiple sclerosis-like symptoms such as tremors and muscle pain. Modern research has confirmed these effects in a study on diseased mice, where CBD eased tremors and spasticity. In general, cannabinoids are useful in treating MS because they have neuroprotective as well as immunosuppressive properties.
CBD stimulates apoptosis, the process responsible for healthy cell turnover within your body. Apoptosis is, simply, programmed cell death. A sign of cancer within the body is the ability of malignant cells to evade the natural process of apoptosis. If the process of apoptosis is properly functioning, it provides strong protection against the development of cancerous cells.
In addition, CBD enhances the generation of reactive oxygen species, which further enhances apoptosis. When your body experiences environmental stress it can cause significant damage to cell structures within the body. CBD can help regulate reactive oxygen species, keeping them at a balanced level. Balanced levels decrease the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding which also inhibits cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis. The analgesic effect of CBD is mediated through the binding of this agent to and activation of CB1.
Cannabinoids may also be beneficial in certain types of cancers that are triggered by chronic inflammation. In these types of cancers, it has been demonstrated that cannabinoids may either directly inhibit tumor growth or suppress inflammation and tumor angiogenesis.
There have been several studies conducted concerning CBD’s powerful effect on a variety of painful conditions. Essentially, acting at the spinal cord, cannabinoids suppress the pain response by modulating noradrenaline release from the central nervous system. Noradrenaline, or norepinephrine, is a hormone in the body that mobilizes the brain and body for action.
When acting in the brain, norepinephrine increases arousal and alertness, promotes vigilance, and focuses attention; it also increases restlessness and anxiety. When acting in the body, norepinephrine increases heart rate and blood pressure, reduces blood flow to the digestive system and inhibits the release of bodily wastes. CBD mitigates the release of noradrenaline, reducing pain by keeping muscles relaxed, the brain calm and systems functioning normally.
A growing number of clinical trials are looking into whether compounds in marijuana can be used to treat some of the symptoms of autism. The goals of these trials include determining whether CBD is safe, tolerable and effective in children with autism; if it improves brain connectivity; and whether biomarkers of brain inflammation, also associated with autism, are altered by CBD. CBDV (another non-psychoactive chemical found in cannabis) is also being tested.
In 2017, the New England Journal of Medicine published the findings of a study focusing on CBD's effects on Dravet syndrome, a rare and particularly dangerous type of epilepsy found in children. Scientists found CBD to be exceptionally effective at lowering the frequency of seizures in patients - remarkable considering the genetic mutation of Dravet syndrome makes the seizures difficult to treat with medication. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration recently approved Epidiolex, a CBD medication designed to treat rare and severe epileptic conditions.
CBD’s ameliorating effects on RA have been studied in earnest since 2006. CBD’s protective effect has been shown in murine collagen-induced arthritis. A recent study showed that daily oral administration of CBD reduced painful inflammation and inhibited disease progression. CBD has also been shown to prevent osteoarthritis pain and joint neuropathy. These effects have led researchers to explore the possible effects of CBD on people suffering from Fibromyalgia.
There has been growing evidence in recent years to suggest that endocannabinoids may regulate the pathophysiology of liver diseases, including both acute forms of hepatic injury, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. This evidence suggests that endocannabinoids and their receptors may play a critical role in regulating liver fibrogenesis; therefore, targeting the cannabinoid receptors may serve as a novel tool to prevent and treat liver injury.
Colitis is defined as excess inflammation in the lining of the colon. Cannabinoids have been shown to directly control the inflammatory response within the colon. Application of CBD in a clinical setting indeed induced a reduction of colitis. These results strongly suggest that modulation of the physiological activity of the cannabinoid system during colonic inflammation might be a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of several diseases characterized by inflammation of the GI tract.
Varieties of Available CBD
To create a CBD product, the cannabinoid content is extracted from the cannabis plant using methods such as CO2 extraction. During this process, other compounds found within the plant are also extracted, including terpenes, flavonoids, and other cannabinoids.
Depending on the strain and classification used for extraction, the composition and cannabinoid profile will differ. For instance - Hemp, which is a classification of Cannabis Sativa, contains little to no THC, compared some Cannabis Indica strains that contain a 1:1 CBD to THC content ratio.
Depending on the purpose of the end-product, companies will choose to extract from a strain of cannabis that best suits their needs. Once extracted, the company can refine the extract to contain only specific cannabinoids and plant parts. The contents of the refined extract are what determines if the CBD extract is full spectrum, broad spectrum, or CBD isolate.
An isolate is the purest form of a compound. Isolates are produced by extracting a specific compound from its environment and isolating it from all other compounds. With that being said, CBD isolate is the purest form of CBD, which is produced by removing all other compounds found in the plant including terpenes, flavonoids, plant parts, and other cannabinoids. CBD isolate is typically extracted from hemp, due to its low to non-existent THC-content.
Full spectrum CBD is an extract that contains all compounds found naturally occurring in the plant, including terpenes, essential oils, and other cannabinoids. The full spectrum of cannabinoids, terpenes, and essential oils extracted from the plant work together to magnify the therapeutic benefits of each individual cannabinoid or the “entourage effect”.
It was previously believed that CBD in its isolated from was more effective than Full Spectrum CBD; however, in 2005, this theory was debunked by a study from the Lautenberg Center for General Tumor Immunology in Jerusalem. In the study, researchers found that test subjects administered with full spectrum CBD were provided with higher levels of relief, compared to subjects administered with CBD isolate. In addition, the results showed that full spectrum CBD provided enhanced effects with higher dosages, while the effects of CBD maintained consistent with increased dosages.
Broad Spectrum CBD is a bit of a mix between Full Spectrum CBD and CBD Isolate. Like Full Spectrum CBD, the other compounds found within the plant are preserved in the extract. However, like CBD Isolate, THC is completely removed from Broad Spectrum products. Because Broad Spectrum CBD contains multiple cannabinoids, it can deliver the enhanced benefits of the “entourage effect,” without the risk of psychoactive effects of THC.
These different extracts can be delivered to the endocannabinoid system of your body in a variety of delivery methods including sublingual tinctures, vaporizing, topical oils and creams, soaps and smokable cannabis flower.
CBD and Skincare
It is an exciting time for those researching the benefits of CBD and the other compounds present in cannabis! Many studies exploring the benefits of these compounds have recently been published and many more are currently underway. These studies are only beginning to teach us about the endocannabinoid system and its control over our body systems. Delving deeper into the research, we find that many studies are focusing on the medicinal and therapeutic effects of CBD, CBN, CBG and other compounds derived from the cannabis plant.
More recently it is being marketed in skin care products for everything from acne to wrinkles.
The skin is the bodies largest organ and acts with its own internal systems. Despite this, the endocannabinoid system directly regulates the skin in a variety of ways.
CBD and Acne
It has been observed that the CB2 receptor acts on the body’s sebaceous glands. These glands are responsible for regulating the oils produced by your skin. This shows us that CBD has potentially powerful benefits in the world of skin care. In one study, CBD was found to exert multiple anti-acne effects by acting as an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial, managing oil production, and regulating the production of keratinocytes. Its effects as an anti-inflammatory can go a long way in soothing the redness and irritation brought on by a bout of acne.
CBD and Dry Skin
The regulation of the production of keratinocytes also is responsible for dry skin conditions such as acne, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis. Available studies show us that CBD balances this process and has great promise in mitigating the factors of many of these dry skin conditions. Specifically, the topical application of CBD may relieve symptoms associated with psoriasis.
CBD and Hyperpigmentation
CBD is also helpful in regulating the skins’ production of melanin. Melanin is responsible for dark pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and hair. The process of melanogenesis is our skins way of protecting itself from harmful external factors such as UV rays and other environmental hazards. One study shows that CBD could be useful as a protective agent against these external stresses to the skin.
CBD and Goat Milk: A Naturally Beneficial Blend
As you can see, there are so many reasons we wanted to blend this powerful ingredient in with our line of goat milk products. Our soaps and milk baths already bring you a hydrating dose of vitamins and minerals that help keep your skin healthy and balanced. The addition of CBD from Mission Farms CBD optimizes the effective nature of our simple, but potent ingredient list.
As always, we welcome your questions and feedback!